Relevant Issues (2 of 26)
Why are some issues greyed out?The SASB Standards vary by industry based on the different sustainability-related risks and opportunities within an industry. The issues in grey were not identified during the standard-setting process as the most likely to be useful to investors, so they are not included in the Standard. Over time, as the ISSB continues to receive market feedback, some issues may be added or removed from the Standard. Each company determines which sustainability-related risks and opportunities are relevant to its business. The Standard is designed for the typical company in an industry, but individual companies may choose to report on different sustainability-related risks and opportunities based on their unique business model.
- GHG Emissions
- Air Quality
- Energy Management
- Water & Wastewater Management
- Waste & Hazardous Materials Management
- Ecological Impacts
- Human Rights & Community Relations
- Customer Privacy
- Data Security
- Access & Affordability
- Product Quality & Safety
- Customer Welfare
Selling Practices & Product LabelingThe category addresses social issues that may arise from a failure to manage the transparency, accuracy, and comprehensibility of marketing statements, advertising, and labeling of products and services. It includes, but is not limited to, advertising standards and regulations, ethical and responsible marketing practices, misleading or deceptive labeling, as well as discriminatory or predatory selling and lending practices. This may include deceptive or aggressive selling practices in which incentive structures for employees could encourage the sale of products or services that are not in the best interest of customers or clients.
- Labor Practices
- Employee Health & Safety
- Employee Engagement, Diversity & Inclusion
Business Model and Innovation
- Product Design & Lifecycle Management
- Business Model Resilience
- Supply Chain Management
- Materials Sourcing & Efficiency
Physical Impacts of Climate ChangeThe category addresses the company’s ability to manage risks and opportunities associated with direct exposure of its owned or controlled assets and operations to actual or potential physical impacts of climate change. It captures environmental and social issues that may arise from operational disruptions due to physical impacts of climate change. It further captures socio-economic issues resulting from companies failing to incorporate climate change consideration in products and services sold, such as insurance policies and mortgages. The category relates to the company's ability to adapt to increased frequency and severity of extreme weather, shifting climate, sea level risk, and other expected physical impacts of climate change. Management may involve enhancing resiliency of physical assets and/or surrounding infrastructure as well as incorporation of climate change-related considerations into key business activities (e.g., mortgage and insurance underwriting, planning and development of real estate projects).
Leadership and Governance
- Business Ethics
- Competitive Behavior
- Management of the Legal & Regulatory Environment
- Critical Incident Risk Management
- Systemic Risk Management
Disclosure Topics (Industry specific) for: Mortgage Finance
The approach mortgage finance entities take when incentivizing employees, and how they communicate with customers is important for multiple reasons. First, the incentive structures and compensation policies of loan originators may unintentionally encourage them to promote lending products and services that are not in the best interest of their clients. Second, the lack of transparency provided to customers with respect to primary and add-on products may impact an entity’s reputation and invite regulatory scrutiny and costly litigation. Finally, poor performance on the first two elements could affect the characteristics of the portfolio of products, resulting in a high concentration of risky products sold. Mortgage Finance industry regulators established significant consumer protection laws in the wake of the 2008 financial crisis that seek to limit the predatory lending practices that encouraged qualified and unqualified borrowers to assume subprime mortgages. In addition, these laws prohibit mortgage originators from receiving compensation that is tied to the value of the loan and require that additional disclosures be given to borrowers. Mortgage finance entities that are able to provide transparent information and fair advice are more likely to protect shareholder value. Enhanced disclosure on key elements of lending practices will allow shareholders to determine which entities are better positioned to protect value.
The Mortgage Finance industry aggregates individual data points to determine the terms and conditions of loans including key provisions such as the size of the loan, interest rate, up-front points, or other fees. However, the complex process may result in intentional or unintentional discriminatory lending practices by the mortgage originator. Discriminatory lending presents significant risks in the form of fines or settlements for violations of regulations such as the U.S. Equal Credit Opportunity Act (ECOA) or the U.S. Fair Housing Act (FHA), reputational risk, and negative financial performance due to loan mispricing. Disclosing processes in place to ensure non-discriminatory lending, disclosing the amount of mortgage lending broken down by minority status along with relevant financial characteristics, and disclosing the amount of monetary losses as a result of legal proceedings associated with violations of applicable laws and regulations will help investors to assess entity performance. Mortgage finance entities can reduce the risk of intentional or unintentional discriminatory lending through the implementation of strong processes, internal controls, and monitoring the loan portfolio, among other techniques. Proactive entities that develop strong techniques for preventing discrimination can effectively mitigate the risks associated with discriminatory lending.
Environmental Risk to Mortgaged Properties
An increase in the frequency of extreme weather events associated with climate change may have an adverse impact on the Mortgage Finance industry. Specifically, hurricanes, floods and other climate change-related events have the potential to result in missed payments and loan defaults, while also decreasing the value of underlying assets. Entities which incorporate climate-related risks into lending analysis may be better positioned to create value over the long-term.