Relevant Issues (4 of 26)
Why are some issues greyed out?The SASB Standards vary by industry based on the different sustainability-related risks and opportunities within an industry. The issues in grey were not identified during the standard-setting process as the most likely to be useful to investors, so they are not included in the Standard. Over time, as the ISSB continues to receive market feedback, some issues may be added or removed from the Standard. Each company determines which sustainability-related risks and opportunities are relevant to its business. The Standard is designed for the typical company in an industry, but individual companies may choose to report on different sustainability-related risks and opportunities based on their unique business model.
- GHG Emissions
- Air Quality
Energy ManagementThe category addresses environmental impacts associated with energy consumption. It addresses the company’s management of energy in manufacturing and/or for provision of products and services derived from utility providers (grid energy) not owned or controlled by the company. More specifically, it includes management of energy efficiency and intensity, energy mix, as well as grid reliance. Upstream (e.g., suppliers) and downstream (e.g., product use) energy use is not included in the scope.
- Water & Wastewater Management
- Waste & Hazardous Materials Management
- Ecological Impacts
- Human Rights & Community Relations
- Customer Privacy
- Data Security
- Access & Affordability
- Product Quality & Safety
- Customer Welfare
- Selling Practices & Product Labeling
- Labour Practices
Employee Health & SafetyThe category addresses a company’s ability to create and maintain a safe and healthy workplace environment that is free of injuries, fatalities, and illness (both chronic and acute). It is traditionally accomplished through implementing safety management plans, developing training requirements for employees and contractors, and conducting regular audits of their own practices as well as those of their subcontractors. The category further captures how companies ensure physical and mental health of workforce through technology, training, corporate culture, regulatory compliance, monitoring and testing, and personal protective equipment.
- Employee Engagement, Diversity & Inclusion
Business Model and Innovation
Product Design & Lifecycle ManagementThe category addresses incorporation of environmental, social, and governance (ESG) considerations in characteristics of products and services provided or sold by the company. It includes, but is not limited to, managing the lifecycle impacts of products and services, such as those related to packaging, distribution, use-phase resource intensity, and other environmental and social externalities that may occur during their use-phase or at the end of life. The category captures a company’s ability to address customer and societal demand for more sustainable products and services as well as to meet evolving environmental and social regulation. It does not address direct environmental or social impacts of the company’s operations nor does it address health and safety risks to consumers from product use, which are covered in other categories.
- Business Model Resilience
- Supply Chain Management
Materials Sourcing & EfficiencyThe category addresses issues related to the resilience of materials supply chains to impacts of climate change and other external environmental and social factors. It captures the impacts of such external factors on operational activity of suppliers, which can further affect availability and pricing of key resources. It addresses a company’s ability to manage these risks through product design, manufacturing, and end-of-life management, such as by using of recycled and renewable materials, reducing the use of key materials (dematerialization), maximizing resource efficiency in manufacturing, and making R&D investments in substitute materials. Additionally, companies can manage these issues by screening, selection, monitoring, and engagement with suppliers to ensure their resilience to external risks. It does not address issues associated with environmental and social externalities created by operational activity of individual suppliers, which is covered in a separate category.
- Physical Impacts of Climate Change
Leadership and Governance
- Business Ethics
- Competitive Behaviour
- Management of the Legal & Regulatory Environment
- Critical Incident Risk Management
- Systemic Risk Management
Disclosure Topics (Industry specific) for: Industrial Machinery & Goods
Energy is a critical input in industrial machinery manufacturing. Purchased electricity is the largest share of energy expenditure in the industry, followed by purchased fuels. The type of energy used, amount consumed and energy management strategies depend on the type of products manufactured. Including the use of electricity generated on site, grid-sourced electricity and alternative energy, an entity’s energy mix can influence the cost and reliability of energy supply and, ultimately, affect the entity’s cost structure and regulatory risk.
Workforce Health & Safety
Employees in industrial machinery manufacturing facilities face health and safety risks from exposure to heavy machinery, moving equipment and electrical hazards, among others. Creating an effective safety culture is critical to mitigate safety incidents proactively, which may result in reduced healthcare costs, litigation and work disruption. By implementing strong safety protocols, including incident reporting and investigation, and promoting a culture of safety, entities can minimise safety-related expenses and potentially improve productivity in the long term.
Fuel Economy & Emissions in Use-phase
Many of the Industrial Machinery & Goods industry’s products are powered by fossil fuels and release greenhouse gases (GHGs) and other air emissions during use. Customer preferences for improved fuel economy combined with regulations restricting emissions are increasing the demand for energy-efficient and lower-emission products in the industry. As such, entities that develop products with these characteristics may capture expanding market share, reduce regulatory risk and improve brand value.
Industrial machinery entities are exposed to supply chain risks when critical materials are used in products. Entities in the industry manufacture products using critical materials with few or no available substitutes, many of which are sourced in only a few countries, which may be subject to geopolitical uncertainty. Entities in this industry also face competition because of increasing global demand for these materials from other sectors, which may result in price increases and supply risks. Entities that limit the use of critical materials by using alternatives, as well as securing supply, may mitigate financial effects stemming from supply disruptions and volatile input prices.
Remanufacturing Design & Services
Industrial machinery and goods manufacturing uses large quantities of steel, iron, aluminium, glass, plastics and other materials. Remanufacturing industrial machinery systems (called ‘cores’) presents an opportunity for industrial machinery entities to limit the quantity of raw materials needed to produce new machinery, as well as reduce the time and other resources required to produce finished goods. Remanufactured products also may create value from products otherwise destined for disposal or recycling. Industrial machinery entities may achieve cost savings by reusing end-of-life parts to build remanufactured machines, which may be resold to customers. Thus, remanufacturing in process and design may reduce demand for raw materials, decrease manufacturing costs and create new sales channels.