Relevant Issues (7 of 26)
Why are some issues greyed out?The SASB Standards vary by industry based on the different sustainability-related risks and opportunities within an industry. The issues in grey were not identified during the standard-setting process as the most likely to be useful to investors, so they are not included in the Standard. Over time, as the ISSB continues to receive market feedback, some issues may be added or removed from the Standard. Each company determines which sustainability-related risks and opportunities are relevant to its business. The Standard is designed for the typical company in an industry, but individual companies may choose to report on different sustainability-related risks and opportunities based on their unique business model.
GHG EmissionsThe category addresses direct (Scope 1) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that a company generates through its operations. This includes GHG emissions from stationary (e.g., factories, power plants) and mobile sources (e.g., trucks, delivery vehicles, planes), whether a result of combustion of fuel or non-combusted direct releases during activities such as natural resource extraction, power generation, land use, or biogenic processes. The category further includes management of regulatory risks, environmental compliance, and reputational risks and opportunities, as they related to direct GHG emissions. The seven GHGs covered under the Kyoto Protocol are included within the category—carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), and nitrogen trifluoride (NF3).
Air QualityThe category addresses management of air quality impacts resulting from stationary (e.g., factories, power plants) and mobile sources (e.g., trucks, delivery vehicles, planes) as well as industrial emissions. Relevant airborne pollutants include, but are not limited to, oxides of nitrogen (NOx), oxides of sulfur (SOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), heavy metals, particulate matter, and chlorofluorocarbons. The category does not include GHG emissions, which are addressed in a separate category.
Energy ManagementThe category addresses environmental impacts associated with energy consumption. It addresses the company’s management of energy in manufacturing and/or for provision of products and services derived from utility providers (grid energy) not owned or controlled by the company. More specifically, it includes management of energy efficiency and intensity, energy mix, as well as grid reliance. Upstream (e.g., suppliers) and downstream (e.g., product use) energy use is not included in the scope.
Water & Wastewater ManagementThe category addresses a company’s water use, water consumption, wastewater generation, and other impacts of operations on water resources, which may be influenced by regional differences in the availability and quality of and competition for water resources. More specifically, it addresses management strategies including, but not limited to, water efficiency, intensity, and recycling. Lastly, the category also addresses management of wastewater treatment and discharge, including groundwater and aquifer pollution.
Waste & Hazardous Materials ManagementThe category addresses environmental issues associated with hazardous and non-hazardous waste generated by companies. It addresses a company’s management of solid wastes in manufacturing, agriculture, and other industrial processes. It covers treatment, handling, storage, disposal, and regulatory compliance. The category does not cover emissions to air or wastewater nor does it cover waste from end-of-life of products, which are addressed in separate categories.
- Ecological Impacts
- Human Rights & Community Relations
- Customer Privacy
- Data Security
- Access & Affordability
- Product Quality & Safety
- Customer Welfare
- Selling Practices & Product Labeling
- Labor Practices
Employee Health & SafetyThe category addresses a company’s ability to create and maintain a safe and healthy workplace environment that is free of injuries, fatalities, and illness (both chronic and acute). It is traditionally accomplished through implementing safety management plans, developing training requirements for employees and contractors, and conducting regular audits of their own practices as well as those of their subcontractors. The category further captures how companies ensure physical and mental health of workforce through technology, training, corporate culture, regulatory compliance, monitoring and testing, and personal protective equipment.
- Employee Engagement, Diversity & Inclusion
Business Model and Innovation
- Product Design & Lifecycle Management
- Business Model Resilience
Supply Chain ManagementThe category addresses management of environmental, social, and governance (ESG) risks within a company’s supply chain. It addresses issues associated with environmental and social externalities created by suppliers through their operational activities. Such issues include, but are not limited to, environmental responsibility, human rights, labor practices, and ethics and corruption. Management may involve screening, selection, monitoring, and engagement with suppliers on their environmental and social impacts. The category does not address the impacts of external factors – such as climate change and other environmental and social factors – on suppliers’ operations and/or on the availability and pricing of key resources, which is covered in a separate category.
- Materials Sourcing & Efficiency
- Physical Impacts of Climate Change
Leadership and Governance
- Business Ethics
- Competitive Behavior
- Management of the Legal & Regulatory Environment
- Critical Incident Risk Management
- Systemic Risk Management
Disclosure Topics (Industry specific) for: Iron & Steel Producers
Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Iron and steel production generates significant direct greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, primarily carbon dioxide and methane, from production processes and on-site fuel combustion. Although technological improvements have reduced the GHG emissions per ton of steel produced, steel production remains carbon-intensive compared to other industries. Regulatory efforts to reduce GHG emissions in response to the risks posed by climate change may result in additional regulatory compliance costs and risks for iron and steel entities because of climate change mitigation policies. Entities can achieve operational efficiencies through the cost-effective reduction of GHG emissions. Capturing such efficiencies can mitigate the potential financial effects of increased fuel costs from regulations that limit—or put a price on—GHG emissions.
Iron and steel production typically generates criteria air pollutants, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and hazardous air pollutants, which can have significant localised public health impacts. Of particular concern are sulphur oxides, nitrogen dioxide, lead, carbon monoxide, and manganese, as well as particles such as soot and dust, which are released during the production process. Across North America, Western Europe, and Japan, technological innovation and continuous improvements in steel-making processes have significantly reduced air pollutants from the Iron & Steel Producers industry. However, air pollutants remain a concern due to heightened regulatory and public concern about air pollution, as well as expansion of steel production in emerging markets. Iron and steel production in emerging markets may be impacted by regulatory efforts aimed at curbing air pollution. Active management of facility emissions through implementation of industry best practices across global operations can facilitate the transition to sustainable steel production, lowering costs and potentially enhancing operational efficiency.
The production of steel requires significant energy, sourced primarily from the direct fossil fuel combustion as well as energy purchased from the grid. Energy-intense production has implications for climate change, and electricity purchases from the grid can result in indirect Scope 2 emissions. The choice between various production processes—electric arc furnaces and integrated basic oxygen furnaces—can influence whether an entity uses fossil fuels or purchases electricity. This decision, together with the choice between using coal versus natural gas or on-site versus grid-sourced electricity, may influence both the costs and reliability of energy supply. Affordable, easily accessible and reliable energy is an important industry competitive factor. Energy costs account for a substantial portion of iron and steel manufacturing costs. How an iron and steel entity manages its energy efficiency, its reliance on various types of energy and associated sustainability risks, and its ability to access alternative sources of energy can influence its profitability.
Steel production requires substantial volumes of water. Entities face increasing operational, regulatory and reputational risks associated with water scarcity, costs of water acquisition, regulations on effluents or amount of water used, and competition with local communities and other industries for limited water resources. These risks are particularly likely to affect regions where water is scarce, resulting in water availability constraints and price volatility. Entities unable to secure a stable water supply could face production disruptions, while rising water prices could directly increase production costs. Consequently, entities adopting technologies and processes to decrease reduce water consumption may reduce operating risks and costs by mitigating the operational impacts of regulatory changes, water supply shortages and community-related disruptions.
While waste reclamation rates in steel production are high, the industry generates significant quantities of hazardous wastes. There are three main waste types in the industry—slag, dusts, and sludges. These by-products are often recycled internally or sold to other industries. However, process wastes such as electric arc furnace dust, which is regulated as a hazardous material in the U.S. due to its heavy metal content, can have significant environmental and human health impacts, present a regulatory risk, and result in additional operating costs for entities. Risks related to the long-term impacts of waste disposal may result in significant costs, including those associated with contaminated off-site disposal properties, for which iron and steel producers may be held responsible for remediation and restoration activities. Entities that reduce waste streams and hazardous waste streams in particular, and recycle or sell non-hazardous by-products, could therefore lower regulatory risks and costs while increasing revenues.
Workforce Health & Safety
Industrial processes used in iron and steel production can present significant risks to employees and contractors working at iron and steel plants. Given the high temperatures and heavy machinery involved, worker injuries and fatalities are a matter of concern to iron and steel producers. The industry has relatively high fatality rates, signifying the hazardous work environment and requiring a strong safety culture and health and safety policies. While accident rates in the industry are on a long-term decline, worker injuries and fatalities can lead to regulatory penalties, negative publicity, low worker morale and productivity, and increased healthcare and compensation costs.
Supply Chain Management
Iron ore and coal are critical raw material inputs to the steel production process. Iron ore mining and coal production are resource-intensive processes. Mineral extraction often has substantial environmental and social impacts adversely affecting local communities, workers and ecosystems. Community protests, legal or regulatory action, or increased regulatory compliance costs or penalties can disrupt mining operations. Iron and steel entities could face supply disruptions as a result, or in some cases, also may be subject to regulatory penalties associated with the environmental or social impact of the mining entity supplier. Minimising such risks through appropriate supplier screening, monitoring and engagement, iron and steel producers may manage their direct critical raw materials suppliers proactively to ensure they are not engaged in illegal or otherwise environmentally or socially damaging practices.