Relevant Issues (4 of 26)
Why are some issues greyed out?The SASB Standards vary by industry based on the different sustainability-related risks and opportunities within an industry. The issues in grey were not identified during the standard-setting process as the most likely to be useful to investors, so they are not included in the Standard. Over time, as the ISSB continues to receive market feedback, some issues may be added or removed from the Standard. Each company determines which sustainability-related risks and opportunities are relevant to its business. The Standard is designed for the typical company in an industry, but individual companies may choose to report on different sustainability-related risks and opportunities based on their unique business model.
GHG EmissionsThe category addresses direct (Scope 1) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that a company generates through its operations. This includes GHG emissions from stationary (e.g., factories, power plants) and mobile sources (e.g., trucks, delivery vehicles, planes), whether a result of combustion of fuel or non-combusted direct releases during activities such as natural resource extraction, power generation, land use, or biogenic processes. The category further includes management of regulatory risks, environmental compliance, and reputational risks and opportunities, as they related to direct GHG emissions. The seven GHGs covered under the Kyoto Protocol are included within the category—carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), and nitrogen trifluoride (NF3).
- Air Quality
- Energy Management
- Water & Wastewater Management
- Waste & Hazardous Materials Management
- Ecological Impacts
- Human Rights & Community Relations
- Customer Privacy
- Data Security
- Access & Affordability
- Product Quality & Safety
- Customer Welfare
- Selling Practices & Product Labeling
Labour PracticesThe category addresses the company’s ability to uphold commonly accepted labour standards in the workplace, including compliance with labour laws and internationally accepted norms and standards. This includes, but is not limited to, ensuring basic human rights related to child labour, forced or bonded labour, exploitative labour, fair wages and overtime pay, and other basic workers’ rights. It also includes minimum wage policies and provision of benefits, which may influence how a workforce is attracted, retained, and motivated. The category further addresses a company’s relationship with organized labour and freedom of association.
- Employee Health & Safety
- Employee Engagement, Diversity & Inclusion
Business Model and Innovation
- Product Design & Lifecycle Management
- Business Model Resilience
- Supply Chain Management
- Materials Sourcing & Efficiency
- Physical Impacts of Climate Change
Leadership and Governance
- Business Ethics
Competitive BehaviourThe category covers social issues associated with existence of monopolies, which may include, but are not limited to, excessive prices, poor quality of service, and inefficiencies. It addresses a company’s management of legal and social expectation around monopolistic and anti-competitive practices, including issues related to bargaining power, collusion, price fixing or manipulation, and protection of patents and intellectual property (IP).
- Management of the Legal & Regulatory Environment
Critical Incident Risk ManagementThe category addresses the company’s use of management systems and scenario planning to identify, understand, and prevent or minimize the occurrence of low-probability, high-impact accidents and emergencies with significant potential environmental and social externalities. It relates to the culture of safety at a company, its relevant safety management systems and technological controls, the potential human, environmental, and social implications of such events occurring, and the long-term effects to an organization, its workers, and society should these events occur.
- Systemic Risk Management
Disclosure Topics (Industry specific) for: Airlines
Greenhouse Gas Emissions
As a result of a heavy reliance on hydrocarbon fuels, the Airlines industry generates significant emissions, more than 99% of which are in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2). Therefore, the industry is subject to compliance costs and risks associated with climate change mitigation policies. The main sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for airlines entities are aircraft fuel use and emissions, ground equipment and facility electricity. Aircraft fuel consumption is the largest contributor to total emissions from the industry, and fuel management is a critical part of reducing emissions. Management of fuel-related environmental impacts includes increasing fuel efficiency through fleet upgrades, retrofits, and flight speed and route design optimisation, as well as using alternative and sustainable fuels. These initiatives require capital expenditures, but in the long term, they may reduce fuel costs and decrease exposure to GHG emissions programmes and regulatory risk.
Collective agreements cover many workers in the Airlines industry and guide fair wage discussions, safe working conditions and freedom of association, which are among basic worker rights. The organising of essential personnel and increased wages or benefits may result in higher labour costs. At the same time, labour practices may affect long-term business profitability. Effective management of, and communication associated with, issues such as worker pay and working conditions may prevent conflicts with workers that could result in extended periods of strikes, which may slow or suspend operations and damage an entity’s reputation, potentially reducing revenue and market share.
The Airlines industry is characterised by competitive margins because of high fixed capital and labour costs and competition with government-subsidised carriers in some markets. Airlines often seek cost savings using economies of scale with alliances or consolidation, which may result in market concentration. The industry also has high barriers to entry because of limited landing rights and increasing airport congestion. Together, these characteristics may encourage entities to engage in anti-competitive practices that increase consumer prices. As a result, antitrust authorities have scrutinised some airline industry practices such as airport slot management, predatory pricing, and alliances and mergers. Legal fees, reputational risk, delayed merger or acquisition transaction costs, and limits to growth through acquisition or merger may create material risks for investors.
Accident & Safety Management
Air travel accidents may result in significant consequences. Passenger safety is paramount in the Airlines industry. Although air travel is one of the safest transport modes, airlines are held to very high safety standards, and consumers expect accident-free operations. Furthermore, since products transported by air tend to be high-value or perishable goods, delivering them safely and in a timely manner is a priority for any carrier. Airline accidents may result in significant environmental and social externalities and require entities to pay for remediation and victim compensation. Safety incidents or violations of safety regulations may affect an entity’s reputation, increasing its risk and cost of capital, resulting in reduced consumer demand and revenues. Even if they occur rarely, larger accidents may result in significant, long-term effects on brand value and revenue growth. Providing adequate employee safety training and ensuring the health and well-being of crew members is critical to ensuring safety. Timely and competent aircraft maintenance may minimise the chances of technical failure and regulatory penalties for non-compliance.